A digital computer is any device that can solve problems using discrete information. It works with binary code data, which means it uses only the two digits 0. and 1. A digital computer can compare, count, and manipulate these numbers or their combinations per a set of instructions stored in its RAM. It can also perform tasks such as controlling industrial processes and regulating the operation of machines, organizing vast amounts of business data and simulating the behavior of the dynamic system (e.g., global weather patterns and chemical reactions) for scientific research.
A typical digital computer systems includes four elements:
(1) input and output equipment
(2) primary storage
(3) control unit
(4) arithmetic/logic unit.
A variety of devices can be used to input data and program instructions into a computer and to access the processing operation results. Standard input devices are keyboards and optical scanners. Output devices include monitors and printers. A computer’s input unit receives information and stores it in its main memory. If not immediately needed, the auxiliary storage. The control unit calls up the correct sequence of instructions from memory and relays them to the appropriate unit. The control unit also coordinates the operating speeds of the input/output devices with that of the ALU to ensure data movement throughout the entire computer system. The ALU is responsible for processing the incoming data at very high speeds, often in nanoseconds (billionths) of a second. The central processing unit comprises the main memory, control unit, and ALU. At the same time, the input-output devices and auxiliary store units make up peripheral equipment.
The digital computer is being developed.
Blase Pascal from France and Gottfried Wilfrid Leibniz from Germany both invented mechanical digital calculators in the 17th century. However, the English inventor Charles Babbage is often credited with creating the first automated digital computer. Babbage’s Analytical Engine was a mechanical device that combined basic arithmetic operations and decisions based on its computations. It was built in the 1830s. Babbage’s plans included most of the essential elements of modern digital computers. They called for sequential control, program control with branching, looping, and arithmetic, and storage units with automatic printing. Babbage’s invention was not completed and was lost until his writings were found over a century later.
- The computer is an electronic, programmable device that can assemble, process, and store data.
- Analog Computer uses mechanical operations to perform calculations, as with an older car speedometer, slide rule, or adding machine.
- Digital Computer uses symbols that represent data in the form of code. The supercomputer is a computer that can perform trillions of calculations per second and is usually custom-made for a particular use.
- Peta flop represents a thousand trillion floating point operations, a measurement often used in scientific calculations.
- Computer Clusters set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.
- Render Farm use clusters of computers joined together with custom-designed connections.
- A desktop computer is a computer whose central processing unit (CPU) might be housed in a tower configuration or, in some cases, within the monitor, as with the Apple iMac.
- Laptop A portable notebook computer
Tablet PC is designed to be held like a legal pad and weighs about three pounds.
The netbook was initially launched as a device for those who mainly wanted to browse the internet or send and receive email.
Convergence Devices include:
- Your cell phone.
- A GPS navigation system.
- A digital camera.
- Innovative appliances that you can program to perform tasks at a particular time.
- Technological Convergence is a term that describes technical devices’ tendency to take on each other’s functions.
- Computer Engineering (CE) studies computer hardware and software systems and programing how devices interface with each other.
- Computer Science (CS) designs software, solves problems such as computer security threats, or develops better ways of handling data storage.
- Information Systems (IS) design technology solutions to help companies solve business problems.
- Information Technology (IT) makes sure the technology infrastructure is in place to support users.
- Software Engineering (SE)writing software programs might be developed for a software manufacturer to sell to the public or involve custom programs written for a large organization to use in-house.
- Web Development The World Wide Web- Programing websites, developing the text and visual content, explaining how clients can use tools such as Search Engine Optimization (SEO) to maximize site traffic, and using social media to promote goods and services.
- Geographic Information System (GIS) Expert capture, manage, analyze, and display geographic data. Data is what you put into a computer. Information that you can get out of it. Information Processing Cycle what happens between obtaining raw data and getting information based on that data from your computer.
- Binary System Computers use two possible values, 0 and 1, called binary digits. Bita shortening of binary digits.Byte 8-bit collections. Input putting data into a computer, converting bits and bytes.
- The Central Processing Unit (CPU) interprets instructions and performs data processing. It is processing the manipulation of data by the computer to create information.
- A microprocessor computer chip that can accept programming instructions tells a computer what to do with the data it receives.
- Computer Memory Temporary storage areas on your computer, including random access memory (RAM) and cache memory. Random Access Memory (RAM) is a holding area for data while your computer processes information. The temporary storage area for data is temporarily stored on your computer when turned off.